Friday, May 17, 2024

Guide to Filing Company Tax Returns in Nigeria

Last Updated on March 13, 2024


Filing company tax returns stands as a pivotal element for companies in Nigeria.

It ensures compliance and contributes to national development.

Every company, regardless of size, must fulfill this duty annually.

This process not only aligns with legal obligations but also showcases corporate responsibility.

By participating in this financial tradition, companies strengthen the economy’s backbone.

Explanation of the legal obligation for companies to file tax returns annually

The Nigerian law mandates every company to file tax returns within six months after the financial year ends.

Failure to comply attracts penalties, affecting the company’s financial health and reputation.

This legal requirement aims to promote transparency and accountability in the business sector.

It reflects the government’s effort to create a fair playing field for all businesses.

Adhering to this obligation, companies confirm their commitment to national growth and development.

Understanding the Nigerian Tax System

Navigating through the Nigerian tax system demands a good understanding of its structure and the obligations it imposes on businesses.

This section offers a detailed look into the framework governed by the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) and the different types of taxes companies in Nigeria must handle.

Also, we’ll delve into the tax year and its significance in filing tax returns.

Overview of the Nigerian Tax Authority: Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS)

The Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) stands as the backbone of Nigeria’s tax administration.

This government agency shoulders the responsibility of collecting federal taxes and ensuring compliance among taxpayers.

FIRS oversees the implementation of various tax laws, aiming to optimize revenue collection for national development.

Efficient and effective tax administration remains its core pursuit, impacting companies operating within Nigeria’s borders.

Types of Taxes Applicable to Companies in Nigeria

Companies in Nigeria must navigate a range of taxes, each with its own rules and rates.

Below, we list the primary taxes affecting businesses:

  • Company Income Tax (CIT): Levies profit earned by companies registered in Nigeria. The current rate stands at 30% for large companies and 20% for small companies, subject to certain conditions.

  • Value Added Tax (VAT): Imposed on the sale of goods and services. The standard VAT rate is 7.5% as of this writing.

  • Education Tax: Companies fund the education sector through a 2% education tax on assessable profits.

  • Capital Gains Tax (CGT): A 10% tax applies to the gain from the disposal of capital assets.

  • Stamp Duties: Applies to documents and agreements, with rates varying based on the document type and transaction value.

  • Withholding Tax (WHT): This advance tax applies to payments on contracts, dividends, royalties, and rents, with rates varying between 5% and 10%.

Understanding these taxes and their applicable rates helps companies plan their tax obligations more effectively.

The Tax Year in Nigeria and Its Relevance to Filing Tax Returns

In Nigeria, the tax year aligns with the calendar year, running from January 1 to December 31.

This period is crucial for companies as it determines the timeframe for reporting income and calculating taxes due.

The significance of the tax year extends to several key activities:

  • It sets the deadline for filing annual tax returns. Companies must submit their income tax returns within six months of the fiscal year-end, making June 30 a critical date for those whose tax year aligns with the calendar year.

  • Understanding the tax year aids in planning for tax payments and ensuring compliance with Nigerian tax laws.

  • It affects the preparation of financial statements, as companies need to report their financial activities for the same period covered by their tax returns.

Adherence to the tax year’s timing is essential for maintaining good standing with the FIRS and avoiding penalties.

Overall, grasping these aspects of Nigeria’s tax system forms the bedrock for effective tax planning and compliance for companies.

The FIRS plays a pivotal role in this landscape, guiding and enforcing tax obligations.

With the knowledge of applicable taxes and the relevance of the tax year, companies can navigate their fiscal responsibilities with greater confidence and precision.

Read: Corporate Debt in Nigeria: An In-depth Statistical Analysis

Preparation for Filing Tax Returns

Preparing to file tax returns in Nigeria demands meticulous attention from companies.

Businesses must focus keenly on several areas to ensure compliance and accuracy.

This preparation lays the groundwork for a smooth tax filing process.

The following sections discuss critical steps involved in this preparation phase.

Keeping Accurate Financial Records

Every company must maintain precise financial records.

This practice not only streamlines the tax filing process but also aids in financial analysis and planning.

Accurate records ensure that companies can:

  • Easily compute taxable income.

  • Substantiate entries in tax returns if audited.

  • Optimize tax deductions and credits effectively.

Adhering to this advice curbs discrepancies and potential penalties during the filing process.


For large companies, conducting an annual audit becomes a necessity.

An audit provides a detailed examination of a company’s financial health. Companies observe benefits such as:

  • Identifying discrepancies or inefficiencies in financial practices.

  • Enhancing trust among stakeholders with validated financial statements.

  • Fulfilling regulatory requirements, as audits might be obligatory for companies exceeding a certain size.

This requirement underscores the importance of transparency and accuracy in financial reporting.

Gathering Necessary Documents

Before filing tax returns, companies must collect all requisite documents.

This step is foundational for an unimpeded tax filing journey.

Essential documents include:

  • The company’s Tax Identification Number (TIN) which links its activities to the tax authorities.

  • Comprehensive financial statements detailing the company’s financial activities over the year.

  • Proofs of tax payments and receipts from previous years, if applicable.

  • Any relevant communication from tax authorities regarding the fiscal period in question.

Having these documents on hand before filing simplifies the process, reducing the risk of back-and-forth with the tax authorities.

Preparation for filing tax returns in Nigeria pivots on three major tenets: maintaining accurate financial records, undergoing audits for larger companies, and assembling all necessary documentation.

These steps, when followed diligently, pave the way for a straightforward and compliant tax filing process.

Companies are encouraged to adopt proactive measures in their financial practices to mitigate any hurdles that might arise during tax season.

Read: Why Every Nigerian Entrepreneur Should Understand Finance

How to File Company Tax Returns in Nigeria

Step-by-step guide on the filing process

Filing company tax returns in Nigeria involves several crucial steps.

Each business must follow the guidelines to comply correctly.

Here’s a simple, step-by-step guide to walk you through the process.

1. Registration with the FIRS and obtaining a Tax Identification Number (TIN).

First, you must register your company with the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS).

This process allows you to obtain a Tax Identification Number (TIN). The TIN acts as your company’s unique identifier in all tax-related matters.

You can register online on the FIRS website or visit any FIRS office. Ensure you provide all necessary documents for a smooth registration process.

2. Calculation of taxable income and tax due.

Next, you must calculate your company’s taxable income.

This involves deducing allowable expenses from your gross income.

After determining the taxable income, apply the current corporate tax rate to calculate the tax due.

Ensure you keep accurate records and receipts to support your calculations.

3. Submission of tax returns online through the FIRS e-filing platform or at designated offices.

The FIRS allows companies to submit their tax returns either online through the e-filing platform or physically at designated offices.

For online submissions, you need to log in to the FIRS e-filing platform, complete the necessary forms, and upload relevant documents.

If you prefer to file physically, ensure you visit an office that handles corporate tax filings. Always double-check your submission for accuracy before finalizing.

4. Payment of tax due, if applicable.

If your company owes taxes, you must ensure timely payment. You can make payments online via the FIRS payment gateway or visit designated banks.

Provide your TIN for every transaction to ensure your payments are correctly recorded against your company’s account.

Keep all payment receipts for your records.

Deadlines for filing tax returns to avoid penalties:

Be aware of the deadlines. Companies must file their returns at least six months after the end of their accounting year or 18 months from when they commenced business, whichever is earlier.

Late submissions can attract penalties and interests on unpaid taxes.

Mark your calendar and set reminders to avoid these unnecessary costs.

Filing company tax returns in Nigeria requires preparation and attention to detail.

Start the process early by registering with the FIRS and obtaining your TIN.

Calculate your taxable income diligently and take advantage of the e-filing platform for convenience.

Remember to pay any tax due promptly and keep an eye on the filing deadlines.

Following these steps will ensure your company complies with Nigerian tax laws and avoids penalties.

Read: Mastering Corporate Finance: The 3 Vital Sectors

Tax Incentives and Exemptions

Nigeria offers various tax incentives to companies.

These incentives aim to boost economic activities, encourage investment, and foster business growth.

Tax Incentives for Companies in Nigeria

  • Pioneer Status Incentive: This grants relief for up to five years. It targets companies in specific industries deemed beneficial for national development.

  • Investment Tax Credit: Companies investing in certain sectors may receive a percentage of their investment as a tax credit.

  • Export Expansion Grant: Businesses that export beyond a certain threshold benefit from this grant, offered as a tax credit.

  • Exemption on Interest Income: Companies earn exemptions on interest from loans for agriculture, manufacturing, or export-oriented activities.

Conditions for Qualifying for Tax Exemptions

  • Business Sector: Your company must operate in a sector eligible for incentives, such as manufacturing, agriculture, or export.

  • Investment Size: Some incentives require a minimum investment amount.

  • Location: Companies in certain geographical locations, especially underdeveloped areas, may qualify more readily for tax incentives.

  • Compliance: Companies must comply with all regulatory and tax obligations to maintain their incentive eligibility.

How to Apply for Tax Incentives and Track Your Application

  1. Identify the applicable tax incentive for your company based on business activities and investment focus.

  2. Prepare the necessary documents. These often include a comprehensive business plan, financial statements, and proof of compliance with specific requirements.

  3. Submit your application through the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) website or visit their office. Include all required documents and a detailed request letter.

  4. Track your application. FIRS typically provides an application number. Use it to check your status online or inquire through their customer service.

  5. Upon approval, FIRS issues a certificate or formal document endorsing the incentive. This document is essential for claiming the incentive on your tax returns.

Successfully applying for tax incentives requires careful planning and adherence to all criteria and procedures.

Companies should also remain proactive in compliance and renewals, where necessary, to maximize the benefits of these incentives.

Nigerian companies have much to gain from these tax incentives. They can considerably reduce the tax burden, encourage reinvestment, and stimulate business expansion.

Understanding and utilizing these incentives properly can lead to significant savings and strategic advantages for businesses.

Taking advantage of these opportunities not only aids individual companies but also plays a crucial role in driving national economic growth.

It’s beneficial for companies to consult tax professionals or the FIRS to ensure they fully understand and meet the requirements for these tax incentives and exemptions.

Read: Capital Structure Choices and Their Impact on Firms

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Filing tax returns is a critical process for companies operating in Nigeria.

Mistakes during this process can result in hefty penalties and complications.

Below, we delve into common pitfalls and how to avoid them.

Late Filing and Its Implications

Every company must file its tax return within six months after the end of its financial year.

Failure leads to unnecessary penalties. For each day of delay, the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) imposes a fine.

The penalty might seem minimal at first but can accumulate into a significant amount over time.

Additionally, interest accrues on the unpaid tax, further increasing the financial burden on the company.

Avoidance Tip:

Mark your calendar. Set several reminders leading up to the deadline. Consider filing months ahead to avoid last-minute rushes.

Incorrect Calculation of Tax Payable

Miscalculating the tax payable is another widespread error.

This mistake can stem from a lack of understanding of the tax laws or simple arithmetic errors.

Underpayment due to incorrect calculations may attract penalties and interest, while overpayment could affect the company’s cash flow unnecessarily.

Avoidance Tip:

Double-check calculations. Use the services of a professional tax consultant or accountant well-versed in Nigeria’s tax regulations.

Embrace tax software to minimize human error.

Failing to Update Company Information with the FIRS

Companies often overlook the importance of updating their information with the FIRS.

Changes such as a new business address, change in company directors, or adjustments in the nature of the business should be communicated promptly.

Failure to do so may result in miscommunication or misdirected correspondence, leading to unanticipated penalties for non-compliance.

Avoidance Tip:

Always inform the FIRS of any changes in company details as soon as they occur. Keeping FIRS updated helps in smooth communication and compliance processes.

Companies must undertake the filing of tax returns with precision and diligence.

Avoiding these common mistakes not only helps in maintaining financial health but also ensures compliance with the law, fostering a good relationship with the FIRS.

Remember, the key to a smooth tax filing process lies in preparation, accuracy, and timely updates.


In wrapping up, remember that timely and accurate tax filing stands paramount.

It not only keeps your company compliant but also positions it for potential financial benefits. Therefore, make these practices a priority.

We strongly encourage you to seek expert advice from tax professionals.

They can guide your compliance journey and help optimize your tax obligations.

Their expertise often reveals opportunities for savings you might overlook.

Lastly, don’t forget the resources at your disposal courtesy of the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS).

The FIRS offers comprehensive assistance for companies navigating their tax filing process.

These resources are invaluable for ensuring your filings are as smooth and error-free as possible.

By adhering to these guidelines and leveraging professional help and FIRS resources, you’ll significantly ease the tax filing process for your company.

Let’s aim for compliance, optimization, and peace of mind in managing our tax responsibilities.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *